gis training

 

INTRODUCTION TO 
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

 

chapter 1

What is GIS

geographic information is increasingly present in our daily life in -digital form

-geographical location from an address on a website
-Site calculation of geographical routes
-Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite tracking system _car GPS_GPS Hiking
-google earth
-The Geoportal of the ign
-many websites offer interactive maps
What is GIS

S               Système
I               d’Information
G             Géographique

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G             Geographic
I              Information
S             System

GIS: geographic information management for multiple business applications

SIG1

images (1)

GIS-2012

sig-500x375

 

 

 

 

 

GIS is: geographic data = digital maps
news geographically localized / geographic coordinates + geographic reference (map projection)
GIS is: computer equipment Specialized computer and peripherals

 

materiel informatique

materiele

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mapping

 

 

 

 

 

GIS is: specialized software in the management of geographic data

LOGICIELgis

logiciel3

logiciel_gis

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GIS is: issues related to territory

town / state / region / area ecological / natural area / agricultural area

land management  :    technical, economic ,legal/planning ,landed ,networks
different managers: general Council ,regional Council ,town /diren ,DDAF ,DDAF,dde

sig = decision support

GIS is: actors
-private stakeholders / public players
-local / national actors actors
services of State/communities territorial/business/providers of data/General public/usersdata administrator

GIS :  software/cast/equipment/geographic data/territory

logiciel_gis

gis materiel

gis

composont

 

 

 

 

 

-Def: a geographic information system and:
a set of digital data geographically localized

structured within a data processing system

comprising functional modules allow  :  create and edit/question/question represent cartographically/a database geographic/according to criteria semantic and spatial.

-terminology /GIS related fields :

Remote sensing/cartography/data base /geographic Remote sensing /Photo interpretation /field survey DGPS
statistical geostatistics /online maps /Mobile GIS /treatment images /System Spatially Referenced Information
System of the Territory Information

chapter 2

Examples of using the GIS:

With the sig we will : map /manage /analyze spatially

the different component of our geographical environment:

forest /urban area /agricultural crop /ground /network transport /network landscape disttribution

GIS what is it for?

-cartography Natural Resources
-fleet tracking trucks, trains, taxi
-Emergency Response ,fire service, ambulance. ..
-mapping and monitoring networks: roads, energy, water, telephone
-Location risk natural and technology
-management of rural areas: agricultural exploitations,parks, forests. . .
-Route calculation
-facilities: rural/ road /rained
-geomarketing
-studies impact

DATABASES ORIGIN OF GIS

DBMS                                          GIS

DBMS:
Database Management Systems
Databases as the foundation of GIS: Introduction to DBMS

How are the information in a database?
users /process transactions/database

files and data storage

    spreadsheet                                           /                                        database

sheet of the spreadsheet                                                                table in the database

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What difference ?

-spreadsheet: The spreadsheet is fully charged
RAM: limited size of data
-database : The database works “directly”
HDD: virtually unlimited data size

structure of relational databases:

-database:  table 1 —–table2——-table3

table1 ——recording 1 ——-recording 2

-recording 2 —–field 1—–field2——-field3

accessguide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

table of  relational databases:

The relational model introduced by Ted Codd in the 70:

-attribute = field = column

-line recording individual

 

db_positions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

concept identifier or key:

id = code uniquely identifies each record in the table

How mani uniquely identify information in the table?

duplicates (two or more identical information) are prohibited
the presence of the key prohibits the presence of an empty field in a record.

why separate the information in multiple tables:

2 types of information in the same table

-owners fields

-vehicles fields

Separation of information into several tables allows:

better modularity information
that speeds up searches by queries
on large amounts of information
avoiding unnecessary handling information